Server – is a hardware designed specifically to perform certain processes. It can work locally or remotely (the second option is more common).
Simply put, a server is a computer that, like the home PC we are used to, includes a processor, RAM, a hard disk, and a motherboard. However, their functions are slightly different, and most servers are much more powerful than standard devices.
Initially, the servers were huge and were in the system unit. Large size delivered a lot of inconvenience, especially large companies in need of maintaining multiple servers. But with the onset of the 21st century, talented developers introduced new technologies, thanks to which the appearance of servaks was radically changed. They began to be installed in a rack resembling a cupboard for which they invented a special compartment.
Today, remote administration is possible with an abundance of rack mounted servers. This means that a person can control them remotely, not only from the next room, but even from another region.
To manage servers, users are offered a wide choice of a wide variety of versions of the Windows or Linux operating systems, but they should be designed specifically for this purpose. You need to install, for example, not a standard Windows 8, but a server Windows Server 2012. A similar situation with Linux, where instead of the version of Ubuntu you need Ubuntu 12.04 Server. By the way, unlike Linux, Windows offers only one such OS.
The standard for servers is a Linux system, as they are more stable and secure.
What is the server for?
Such computers perform many functions, but it is important for you to know the most basic of them that relate to websites:
- Store data of Internet resources, for example, messages of users of an e-mail service, etc. Other users use servers to store personal data via file hosting services, cloud services, etc.
- Provide Internet service providers. In order for you to be able to connect to the Internet, you need to establish a connection with the server, which in this case is the base of Internet traffic, which it sends to users. There are also so-called DNS servers that convert URL characters to IP addresses, since your PC does not understand the lettering – it works with numbers. Provider services are impossible without servers.
- Store files, folders and other materials posted on sites. This service is known as hosting.
Such servers are good because they are available to users always and everywhere, from any device.
How to install the server?
Installing a server is not as difficult as it seems at first glance, and anyone can do it, either at home or in any office or corporation.
How to install a private server?
To acquire a server that will perform simple tasks, it is enough to have a simple computer, install one of the previously mentioned operating systems on it to manage the server and connect to the Internet or local network. For a server to be accessible via the Internet, it must have a unique external IP address. As a rule, it works smoothly, but if it is not necessary, you can disable it.
There are local servers that perform the simplest tasks. Through a special program, they are installed on the PC. This is very convenient, because there is no need to buy a separate device. The main requirement – the compliance of computer resources. For example, to install and organize the work of a local server based on Windows OS, there is a Denwer program. By installing it, roughly speaking, you allocate part of the space on your PC to your server. On it you can create a site that can be accessed by you and other Internet users.
But it is important to note that the site is accessible to other users – your computer must be constantly turned on and have access to the Internet. In this case, it is easier and cheaper to order hosting. Hosting is a service provided by firms (hosters) for placing their resources on them; they guarantee uninterrupted work and support.
But Denwer is a good solution if you want to quickly set up and create your website before putting it on hosting.
How to install corporate servers?
To do this, you need racks, which we mentioned a little earlier. You can also easily find them in specialized online stores that offer devices of different sizes and parameters, depending on the number of servers and the purposes for which they will be used.
It is very important that the rooms where the racks will be installed are well ventilated. They need free access, and they should not interfere with the movement of people. At first racks fasten, and only then the network and electric cable are brought to them.
For server parts are special chassis, ensuring their compact placement. After the components are placed in the chassis, it is inserted into the rack, and then a trial run of the server occurs. To make the server ready for full-fledged operation, a special operating system for administration is set up last.
Server administration is handled by special trained people called system administrators. They monitor the operation of the server and software updates, equipment.
As you can see, the server performs a huge number of important functions, without which the work of the Internet and the interaction of users and web resources is simply impossible. At the same time, resources for creating and managing servers are currently available to anyone.